4C Offshore Empowering Intelligence

Subsea Electricity Interconnectors Database

4C Offshore’s Subsea Electricity Interconnectors Database provides comprehensive data and insights on subsea electricity interconnectors, including landfall countries, cable current, status, capacity, and more. This intelligence is essential for offshore wind project managers, operators, and maintenance teams, and is accessible via ForeSEE, our marine intelligence software. It is a centralised repository for all essential data related to subsea electricity interconnectors, helping to effectively monitor, analyse and maintain these critical assets.

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  • 52 Converters
  • 800 Interconnectors
  • 384 Substations
  • 864 Export Cables
  • Country And Landfall
  • Substation
  • Cable Name
  • Cable Current
  • Status
  • Capacity MW

ForeSEE marine intelligence software provides you with exclusive access to a range of specialised services including the Global Offshore Wind Farm Database. ForeSEE grants you exclusive access to online and offline databases, reports, newsletters, online tools and more.

Subsea Electricity Interconnectors Overview

Interconnector Country 1 Country 2 Capacity Current

An Introduction To Subsea Electricity Interconnectors

For experts in the field of energy, subsea electricity interconnectors play a critical role in facilitating cross-border power exchange between countries. These interconnectors are vital infrastructural components that enable the transmission of electricity across underwater cables, connecting power grids of different nations.

An Introduction To Subsea Electricity Interconnectors

Subsea electricity interconnectors have many roles:

Cross-Border Power Exchange

The primary role of subsea electricity interconnectors is to facilitate the exchange of electricity between neighboring countries. They enable the import and export of electricity, allowing for the sharing of renewable energy resources, balancing supply and demand, and enhancing energy security and market integration.

Subsea electricity interconnectors contribute to several crucial aspects of energy systems and policies:

Diversification of Energy Sources

Interconnectors enable countries to access a broader range of energy sources by importing electricity generated from diverse and renewable resources.

Market Integration

Cross-border power exchange promotes efficient competition and integration in energy markets, leading to better pricing, increased energy trading, and improved market stability.

Energy Security

Interconnectors enhance energy security by providing access to a wider range of electricity sources, reducing dependency on single energy suppliers, and enabling mutual support during supply disruptions.

Renewable Energy Integration

Interconnectors help optimize the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources by facilitating the export of excess renewable energy and the import of electricity during periods of low renewable generation.

Capacity Enhancement

Subsea interconnectors increase the overall transmission capacity of interconnected grids, allowing for the transfer of larger volumes of electricity between countries. This capacity enhancement improves grid stability, promotes efficient utilization of generation resources, and supports the integration of renewable energy.

Renewable Energy Integration

Interconnectors enable the transport of surplus renewable energy from regions with high generation to areas with high demand, maximizing the utilization of renewable resources and reducing curtailment.

Peak Load Management

Interconnectors facilitate the sharing of peak electricity demand, allowing countries to meet peak load requirements by accessing surplus capacity from neighboring grids.

System Flexibility and Grid Balancing

Subsea electricity interconnectors provide system flexibility and support grid balancing by allowing countries to optimize their electricity generation mix and access resources during periods of supply shortage or excess.

Demand-Supply Balancing

Interconnectors allow countries to balance their electricity supply and demand by importing electricity during peak demand periods or exporting excess electricity during periods of low demand.

Integration of Variable Generation

Interconnectors help manage the intermittency of renewable energy sources by leveraging the diversity of weather patterns across regions, enabling the transfer of electricity from areas with high renewable generation to areas with lower generation.

An Introduction To Subsea Electricity Interconnectors

Subsea electricity interconnectors consist of high-voltage cables laid on the seabed, typically in the form of submarine or subsea power cables. The cables are insulated and protected to withstand the marine environment. They connect converter stations or substations on each side of the interconnector, where the electricity is converted from AC to DC (or vice versa) using power converters. Power flow is controlled through the converter stations to enable bidirectional electricity exchange. Real-time monitoring and control systems ensure optimal operation and adherence to grid requirements.

These interconnectors play a crucial role in enabling cross-border power exchange, enhancing energy security, promoting market integration, and facilitating the integration of renewable energy. Their capacity enhancement, system flexibility, and grid balancing capabilities contribute to the optimization of electricity systems, fostering a more sustainable and interconnected energy landscape.

Three offshore wind turbines in an array

Types Of Subsea Electricity Interconnector data

Here is a comprehensive list of subsea electricity interconnector data types:

Interconnector Information

  • Interconnector Name
  • Ownership and Operators
  • Capacity and Voltage Levels
  • Commissioning Date
  • Operational Status

Geographical Data

  • Route Details (Start and End Points)
  • Cable Length and Diameter
  • Seabed Conditions
  • Water Depth Profile
  • Landing Points on Shore

Technical Specifications

  • Cable Manufacturer and Supplier
  • Cable Type and Construction
  • Conductor Material and Cross-Sectional Area
  • Insulation and Protective Coating Details
  • Electrical Parameters (Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance)

Transmission Capacity and Flow Data

  • Maximum Transmission Capacity
  • Nominal and Peak Flow Rates
  • Flow Direction (Bidirectional or Unidirectional)
  • Transmission Losses and Efficiency

Converter Stations and Substations

  • Converter Station Locations
  • Substation Details on Each End
  • Converter Specifications (AC/DC)
  • Transformer Specifications
  • Reactive Power Compensation Equipment

Operational Performance Metrics

  • Power Flow Measurements
  • Voltage and Frequency Control Data
  • Line Losses and Efficiency
  • Grid Stability Monitoring

Maintenance and Repairs

  • Maintenance Schedules and Records
  • Cable Fault Detection and Repair Data
  • Testing and Inspection Reports
  • Cable Life Expectancy and Remaining Useful Life

Communication and Control Systems

  • Control and Monitoring Equipment Details
  • SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) Systems
  • Communication Network Architecture
  • Data Acquisition and Telemetry Systems

Market and Regulatory Data

  • Market Access Agreements
  • Tariff and Pricing Information
  • Regulatory Compliance Documentation
  • Cross-Border Energy Trading Data

Safety and Environmental Data

  • Environmental Impact Assessments
  • Seabed Surveys and Protection Measures
  • Emergency Response Plans
  • Safety Certifications and Compliance Records

Historical and Fincancial Data

  • Construction and Commissioning Reports
  • Financial Investment Details
  • Operation and Maintenance Costs
  • Revenue and Profitability Data

Many of these data points are available in the Offshore Subsea Electricity Interconnectors Database

Subsea Electricity Interconnector Innovation

The subsea electricity interconnector sector is witnessing significant advancements driven by technological innovations and industry developments. These innovations are revolutionizing the efficiency, performance, and sustainability of subsea electricity transmission. Here are some of the latest innovations and their implications for the sector:

High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Technology Advancements

Voltage Source Converters (VSC)
HVDC interconnectors utilizing VSC technology offer enhanced controllability, faster response times, and improved grid stability. They enable efficient power transmission, grid synchronization, and integration of renewable energy sources.
Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC)
MMC-based HVDC interconnectors provide higher transmission capacity, improved power quality, and reduced harmonics. They offer enhanced control capabilities, increased system availability, and lower transmission losses.

Advanced Cable Technologies

High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Cables
HTS cables, utilizing superconducting materials, offer significantly higher power-carrying capacity compared to conventional cables. They allow for greater power transmission within limited cable dimensions, enabling increased transmission capacity and reduced cable footprint.
Dynamic Cable Rating Systems
Innovative real-time monitoring systems and algorithms enable the dynamic rating of subsea cables based on environmental conditions. This ensures optimal power transmission, considering factors such as cable temperature, load conditions, and seawater cooling.

Intelligent Monitoring and Condition Assessment

Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing
Fiber optic cables integrated into subsea interconnectors provide continuous monitoring of cable health, detecting strain, temperature, and leakage. This enables proactive maintenance and condition-based asset management, minimizing downtime and improving reliability.
Predictive Analytics and Machine Learning
Advanced analytics and machine learning algorithms are being applied to large volumes of operational data to identify patterns, predict failures, and optimize maintenance strategies. This enhances the performance and lifespan of subsea interconnectors.

Subsea Power Electronics and Energy Storage Integration

Power Electronics Integration
Subsea power electronics systems are being developed to enable power conversion and control closer to the offshore energy sources. This improves efficiency, reduces transmission losses, and enhances voltage stability.
Energy Storage Integration
Integration of energy storage systems, such as batteries or supercapacitors, with subsea interconnectors allows for energy balancing, frequency regulation, and grid stability. It facilitates the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources and improves overall system reliability.

Floating Subsea Interconnectors

Floating HVDC Solutions
Innovations in floating HVDC technology enable the deployment of subsea interconnectors in deep-water regions where traditional fixed foundations are not feasible. This expands the geographical reach and potential for cross-border power exchange.

Result of Interconnector Innovation

These innovations hold several implications for the sector:

Increased Capacity and Efficiency

Advanced technologies enable higher transmission capacities, improved power quality and reduced losses, enchancing the efficiency and utilization of subsea interconnectors.

Integration of Renewable Energy

Innovations support the seamless integration of renewable enrgy sources, enabling the transmission of clean energy across borders and fostering the growth of a sustainable energy landscape.

Grid Resilience and Stability

Enhanced control capabilities and real-time monitoring systems contribute to improved grid stability, rapid fault detection, and optimized system response, ensuring reliable and secure electricity transmission.

Cost Reduction and Environmental Benefits

Innovations in cable technology, monitoring systems, and maintenance strategies reduce operational costs, extend the lifespan of interconnectors, and minimize environmental impact.

Market Integration and Energy Trading

Advancements in subsea interconnectors encourage market integration, enable cross-border energy trading, and create opportunities for economic growth and improved energy security.

A line of wind turbines in an array