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Offshore Wind Export Cables Intelligence Database

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Our Offshore Export Cables Intelligence Database provides detailedanalyses on cable lengths, technology, and number of cables required for each project. With our ForeSEE Web App software, it enables developers, investors, and consultants in the offshore wind industry to access accurate and up-to-date information on offshore wind cable infrastructure. With 13,760km already installed and growing, this intelligence database provides the insights needed to make informed decisions within the industry.

The ForeSEE software is a comprehensive suite of reports, databases and online tools for the offshore wind sector and adjacent industries. ForeSEE allows us to create our sector-specific subscriptions to help people gather intelligence to inform decisions, for example, our offshore wind farm database subscription. Sector subscriptions are fuelled by wide-reaching data and insights to help organisations make informed decisions.

Subscriptions include:

  • Sector-specific on- and offline databases
  • Reports
  • Newsletters
  • Online Tools

This enables:

  • Competitor analysis
  • Industry analysis
  • Offshore wind project pipeline opportunity discovery
  • Resource assessment

  • Offshore wind cable database.
  • Interconnector cable database.
  • Project details, supply chain and contracts awarded are all listed.
  • Graphs and charts - market shares for installers and manufacturers.
  • Charts detailing company activities for global interconnector projects.

ForeSEE marine intelligence software provides you with exclusive access to a range of specialised services, including the Global Offshore Wind Export Cables Database.

Export Cable Overview

Country Transmission Cable / Status Converter Substation(s) Wind Farm(s)
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

NOR-6-1 (BorWin1) Alpha to UW Diele

Status:

Operational

Converter: BorWin1

Substation(s)

Windfarm(s)

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

BorWin1 cable

Status:

Operational

Converter: BorWin1

Substation(s)

Windfarm(s)

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

NOR-2-2 (DolWin1) Alpha to UW Dörpen/West

Status:

Operational

Converter: DolWin1

Substation(s)

Windfarm(s)

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

NOR-4-1 (HelWin1) Alpha to Büttel

Status:

Operational

Converter: HelWin1

Substation(s)

Windfarm(s)

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

NOR-4-2 (HelWin2) Beta to Büttel

Status:

Operational

Converter: HelWin2

Substation(s)

Windfarm(s)

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

NOR-3-1 (DolWin2) Beta to UW Dörpen/West

Status:

Operational

Converter: DolWin2

Substation(s)

Windfarm(s)

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

NOR-5-1 (SylWin1) Alpha to Büttel

Status:

Operational

Converter: SylWin1

Substation(s)

Windfarm(s)

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

SylWin2 cable

Status:

Cancelled

Converter: SylWin2

Substation(s)

No data available

Windfarm(s)

No data available

No data available
No data available
Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

NOR-2-3 (DolWin3) Gamma to UW Dörpen/West

Status:

Operational

Converter: DolWin3

Substation(s)

Windfarm(s)

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

DolWin3 cable

Status:

Operational

Converter: DolWin3

Substation(s)

Windfarm(s)

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

NOR-8-1 (BorWin3) Gamma to UW Emden/Ost

Status:

Operational

Converter: BorWin3

Substation(s)

Windfarm(s)

Read more
4C Offshore | Germany Flag

Germany

Country: Germany

Cable Name

NOR-7-1 (BorWin5) Epsilon to Cloppenburg

Status:

Planned

Converter: BorWin4

Substation(s)

    Windfarm(s)

    Read more
    4C Offshore | China Flag

    China

    Country: China

    Cable Name

    Yellow Sea Converter 1 cable

    Status:

    Cancelled

    Converter: Yellow Sea Converter 1

    Substation(s)

    No data available

    Windfarm(s)

    No data available

    No data available
    No data available
    Read more
    4C Offshore | United States Flag

    United States

    Country: United States

    Cable Name

    New Jersey Energy Link Converter cable

    Status:

    Cancelled

    Converter: New Jersey Energy Link Converter

    Substation(s)

    No data available

    Windfarm(s)

    No data available

    No data available
    No data available
    Read more
    4C Offshore | China Flag

    China

    Country: China

    Cable Name

    Yellow Sea Converter 2 cable

    Status:

    Cancelled

    Converter: Yellow Sea Converter 2

    Substation(s)

    No data available

    Windfarm(s)

    No data available

    No data available
    No data available
    Read more
    4C Offshore | Germany Flag

    Germany

    Country: Germany

    Cable Name

    DolWin5 cable

    Status:

    Manufacturing

    Converter: DolWin5

    Substation(s)

      Windfarm(s)

      Read more
      4C Offshore | Germany Flag

      Germany

      Country: Germany

      Cable Name

      NOR-1-1 (DolWin5) Epsilon to UW Emden/Ost

      Status:

      Manufacturing

      Converter: DolWin5

      Substation(s)

        Windfarm(s)

        Read more
        4C Offshore | Germany Flag

        Germany

        Country: Germany

        Cable Name

        NOR-3-2

        Status:

        Planned

        Converter: DolWin4

        Substation(s)

          Windfarm(s)

          Read more
          4C Offshore | Germany Flag

          Germany

          Country: Germany

          Cable Name

          DolWin4 cable

          Status:

          Planned

          Converter: DolWin4

          Substation(s)

            Windfarm(s)

            Read more
            4C Offshore | Germany Flag

            Germany

            Country: Germany

            Cable Name

            NOR-3-3 (DolWin6) Kappa to Emden /Ost

            Status:

            Operational

            Converter: DolWin6

            Substation(s)

            Windfarm(s)

            Read more
            4C Offshore | Germany Flag

            Germany

            Country: Germany

            Cable Name

            NOR-6-3

            Status:

            Planned

            Converter: BorWin5

            Substation(s)

              Windfarm(s)

              Read more
              4C Offshore | United States Flag

              United States

              Country: United States

              Cable Name

              NELI Interconnector Converter cable

              Status:

              Cancelled

              Converter: NELI Interconnector Converter

              Substation(s)

              No data available

              Windfarm(s)

              No data available

              No data available
              No data available
              Read more
              4C Offshore | United States Flag

              United States

              Country: United States

              Cable Name

              NELI Interconnector Converter cable

              Status:

              Cancelled

              Converter: NELI Interconnector Converter

              Substation(s)

              No data available

              Windfarm(s)

              No data available

              No data available
              No data available
              Read more
              4C Offshore | Belgium Flag

              Belgium

              Read more
              4C Offshore | Netherlands Flag

              Netherlands

              Country: Netherlands

              Cable Name

              IJmuiden Ver Alpha

              Status:

              Planned

              Converter: IJmuiden Ver Alpha

              Substation(s)

                Windfarm(s)

                Read more
                4C Offshore | Netherlands Flag

                Netherlands

                Country: Netherlands

                Cable Name

                IJmuiden Ver Beta

                Status:

                Planned

                Converter: IJmuiden Ver Beta

                Substation(s)

                  Windfarm(s)

                  Read more
                  4C Offshore | China Flag

                  China

                  Read more
                  4C Offshore | China Flag

                  China

                  Country: China

                  Cable Name

                  Rudong H6, 8, &10 Converter cable

                  Status:

                  Operational

                  Converter: Rudong H6, 8, &10 Converter

                  Substation(s)

                  Windfarm(s)

                  Read more
                  4C Offshore | United States Flag

                  United States

                  Country: United States

                  Cable Name

                  New Jersey Ocean Grid cable

                  Status:

                  Planned

                  Converter: New Jersey Ocean Grid

                  Substation(s)

                  No data available

                  Windfarm(s)

                  No data available

                  No data available
                  No data available
                  Read more
                  4C Offshore | Denmark Flag

                  Denmark

                  Country: Denmark

                  Cable Name

                  Energiø Nordsøen cable

                  Status:

                  Planned

                  Converter: Energiø Nordsøen

                  Substation(s)

                    Windfarm(s)

                    Read more
                    4C Offshore | Germany Flag

                    Germany

                    Country: Germany

                    Cable Name

                    LanWin4 (NOR-11-2) cable

                    Status:

                    Planned

                    Converter: LanWin4 (NOR-11-2)

                    Substation(s)

                      Windfarm(s)

                      Read more
                      4C Offshore | Germany Flag

                      Germany

                      Country: Germany

                      Cable Name

                      LanWin5 (NOR-13-1) cable

                      Status:

                      Planned

                      Converter: LanWin5 (NOR-13-1)

                      Substation(s)

                        Windfarm(s)

                        Read more
                        4C Offshore | Netherlands Flag

                        Netherlands

                        Country: Netherlands

                        Cable Name

                        IJmuiden Ver Gamma cable

                        Status:

                        Planned

                        Converter: IJmuiden Ver Gamma

                        Substation(s)

                          Windfarm(s)

                          Read more
                          4C Offshore | Belgium Flag

                          Belgium

                          Country: Belgium

                          Cable Name

                          Princess Elizabeth Island cable

                          Status:

                          Manufacturing

                          Converter: Princess Elizabeth Island

                          Substation(s)

                            Windfarm(s)

                            Read more
                            4C Offshore | Belgium Flag

                            Belgium

                            Country: Belgium

                            Cable Name

                            Princess Elizabeth Island cable

                            Status:

                            Manufacturing

                            Converter: Princess Elizabeth Island

                            Substation(s)

                              Windfarm(s)

                              Read more
                              4C Offshore | Belgium Flag

                              Belgium

                              Country: Belgium

                              Cable Name

                              Princess Elizabeth Island cable

                              Status:

                              Manufacturing

                              Converter: Princess Elizabeth Island

                              Substation(s)

                                Windfarm(s)

                                Read more
                                4C Offshore | Belgium Flag

                                Belgium

                                Country: Belgium

                                Cable Name

                                MOG II HVDC cable

                                Status:

                                Manufacturing

                                Converter: Princess Elizabeth Island

                                Substation(s)

                                  Windfarm(s)

                                  Read more
                                  4C Offshore | United States Flag

                                  United States

                                  Country: United States

                                  Cable Name

                                  Anbaric Boardwalk Power Link

                                  Status:

                                  Planned

                                  Converter: Boardwalk Power Link Platform

                                  Substation(s)

                                  No data available

                                  Windfarm(s)

                                  No data available

                                  No data available
                                  No data available
                                  Read more
                                  4C Offshore | Germany Flag

                                  Germany

                                  Country: Germany

                                  Cable Name

                                  BalWin4 (NOR-9-3) cable

                                  Status:

                                  Planned

                                  Converter: BalWin4 (NOR-9-3)

                                  Substation(s)

                                    Windfarm(s)

                                    Read more
                                    4C Offshore | United Kingdom Flag

                                    United Kingdom

                                    Country: United Kingdom

                                    Cable Name

                                    Morven & Bellrock Shared Connection cable

                                    Status:

                                    Planned

                                    Converter: Morven & Bellrock Shared Connection

                                    Substation(s)

                                    No data available

                                    Windfarm(s)

                                    No data available

                                    No data available
                                    No data available
                                    Read more
                                    4C Offshore | United Kingdom Flag

                                    United Kingdom

                                    Country: United Kingdom

                                    Cable Name

                                    Dogger Bank 2 cable

                                    Status:

                                    Planned

                                    Converter: Dogger Bank 2

                                    Substation(s)

                                    No data available

                                    Windfarm(s)

                                    No data available

                                    No data available
                                    No data available
                                    Read more
                                    4C Offshore | United Kingdom Flag

                                    United Kingdom

                                    Country: United Kingdom

                                    Cable Name

                                    Dogger Bank 2 cable

                                    Status:

                                    Planned

                                    Converter: Dogger Bank 2

                                    Substation(s)

                                    No data available

                                    Windfarm(s)

                                    No data available

                                    No data available
                                    No data available
                                    Read more
                                    4C Offshore | United Kingdom Flag

                                    United Kingdom

                                    Country: United Kingdom

                                    Cable Name

                                    Dogger Bank 1 cable

                                    Status:

                                    Planned

                                    Converter: Dogger Bank 1

                                    Substation(s)

                                    No data available

                                    Windfarm(s)

                                    No data available

                                    No data available
                                    No data available
                                    Read more
                                    4C Offshore | France Flag

                                    France

                                    Country: France

                                    Cable Name

                                    Sud Atlantique cable

                                    Status:

                                    Planned

                                    Converter: Sud Atlantique

                                    Substation(s)

                                      Windfarm(s)

                                      Read more
                                      4C Offshore | China Flag

                                      China

                                      Country: China

                                      Cable Name

                                      Yuedian Yangjiang Qingzhou I&II cable

                                      Status:

                                      Operational

                                      Converter: Yuedian Yangjiang Qingzhou I&II

                                      Substation(s)

                                      Windfarm(s)

                                      Read more

                                      The Role of Export Cables in Offshore Wind

                                      Export cables play a crucial role in the offshore wind sector, transferring power from offshore wind farms to the onshore grid network. Typically, offshore cables connect to intermediate AC substations or DC converters before being transferred to the onshore grid. However, in some instances, offshore cables can connect to an offshore grid system or alternate end-users such as oil and gas platforms or even industrial facilities.

                                      Export cables come in various forms and sizes, with different technologies being utilised depending on factors such as distance from shore, project capacity, and market requirements. Historically, High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) technology has been the most popular choice for offshore wind cables. However, as offshore wind farms move further from shore and capacity increases, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is increasingly being used.

                                      The distance between the offshore wind farm and the onshore grid network is critical in determining the type of offshore cables required. The longer the distance, the higher the voltage required to reduce power losses during transmission. Additionally, the wind farm's capacity is also a key consideration, as larger wind farms will need more export cables to transfer the power generated.

                                      Installing and maintaining offshore cables can be challenging and costly, with harsh marine environments and varying seabed conditions adding to the complexity. Ensuring that the cables are installed correctly and maintained to the highest standard is essential for offshore wind farms' efficient and reliable operation.

                                      Export Cables

                                      Export Cable data

                                      To successfully operate in the offshore wind sector, renewable energy experts require access to a wide range of data related to export cables. By utilising this data, experts can make informed decisions that optimise export cables' performance, safety, and longevity.

                                      This is a list of types of data you might need to know about offshore wind cables, along with examples of each:

                                      Cable specifications

                                      • Length: e.g., 100km, 200km, 400km
                                      • Diameter: e.g., 100mm, 200mm, 300mm
                                      • Type: e.g., XLPE, PEX, EPR
                                      • Voltage rating: e.g., 33kV, 66kV, 132kV

                                      Environmental data

                                      • Seabed topography: e.g., sand, gravel, rock
                                      • Soil types: e.g., clay, silt, sand
                                      • Water depth: e.g., 10m, 20m, 50m
                                      • Wave heights: e.g., 2m, 4m, 6m
                                      • Currents: e.g., 1m/s, 2m/s, 3m/s

                                      Regulatory requirements

                                      • Permits and licences required for cable installation and operation
                                      • Compliance with national and international standards and regulations, such as ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and OHSAS 18001

                                      Project planning data

                                      • Project timelines and milestones for cable installation and operation
                                      • Budgets and costs associated with cable installation and operation

                                      Cable installation data

                                      • Installation methods: e.g., ploughing, trenching, jetting
                                      • Equipment required: e.g., cable laying vessels, subsea trenchers, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs)
                                      • Personnel required: e.g., cable engineers, ROV operators, cable jointers

                                      Maintenance and repair data

                                      • Procedures and equipment required for cable maintenance and repair, such as cable jointing and splicing equipment
                                      • Maintenance schedules and plans for cable inspection and testing

                                      Performance data

                                      • Power losses: e.g., 0.5%/km, 1%/km, 2%/km
                                      • Cable temperature: e.g., 60°C, 70°C, 80°C
                                      • Insulation resistance: e.g., 100MΩ, 200MΩ, 500MΩ

                                      Monitoring data

                                      • Environmental and operational conditions of the cables, such as water ingress and cable tension
                                      • Real-time monitoring of cable performance, such as power output and cable temperature

                                      Incident data

                                      • Data on any incidents, such as cable failures or damage, that occur during the installation or operation of the offshore wind farm
                                      • Information on the causes of cable failures, such as corrosion or physical damage

                                      Cost data

                                      • Cost of cable installation, maintenance, and repair
                                      • Potential economic impact of cable failures or downtime, such as lost revenue and increased maintenance costs.

                                      Export Cable Challenges and Solutions

                                      Export cables play a crucial role in the offshore wind sector, but their installation and maintenance can be challenging. Here are some of the challenges related to offshore cables in the renewable energy sector and potential solutions:

                                      Harsh Marine Environment

                                      Problem

                                      The harsh marine environment, including strong currents, waves, and storms, can damage export cables, leading to costly repairs or replacements.

                                      Solution

                                      The solution to this challenge is to design and manufacture export cables that can withstand these conditions. This can be achieved through the use of robust materials and protective coatings.

                                      Varying Seabed Conditions

                                      Problem

                                      The seabed conditions can vary significantly from site to site, with rocky, sandy, or muddy seabeds presenting different challenges for cable installation and maintenance.

                                      Solution

                                      The solution to this challenge is to conduct thorough surveys of the seabed before installation to ensure that the cable is laid in the most suitable location. In addition, using specialised installation equipment, such as ploughs or trenchers, can help minimise the impact of varying seabed conditions.

                                      Cost

                                      Problem

                                      Export cables are expensive to install and maintain, with the cost increasing as the distance from the shore and project capacity increase.

                                      Solution

                                      The solution to this challenge is to use advanced technology, such as HVDC cables to minimise power losses during transmission and reduce the project's overall cost. In addition, using standardised cable designs can help to reduce costs and increase efficiency.

                                      Repair and Maintenance

                                      Problem

                                      Repairing and maintaining offshore transmission export cables can be challenging and expensive, requiring specialised equipment and personnel.

                                      Solution

                                      The solution to this challenge is to conduct regular inspections to identify potential issues before they become significant problems. Additionally, using remote sensing technology such as fibre-optic sensing can help detect any cable problems before they lead to failure.

                                      Cross-border Transmission

                                      Problem

                                      Cross-border transmission of renewable energy can present additional challenges related to regulatory and technical issues.

                                      Solution

                                      The solution to this challenge is establishing clear regulations and technical standards for cross-border transmission and promoting cooperation between countries.

                                      Export Cable Innovation

                                      Recent innovations in offshore transmissions export cables in the sector have focused on improving their efficiency, durability and resilience in harsh marine environments.

                                      High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cables

                                      High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cables are more efficient than traditional High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) cables in transmitting electricity over long distances. HVDC cables use a smaller amount of copper and aluminium, reducing the cable's weight and cost while also reducing power losses during transmission. For instance, the Hornsea One wind farm in the UK uses 400-kV HVDC cables capable of transmitting 1.2 GW of electricity over a distance of 120 km to the onshore grid.

                                      Materials

                                      Use of lightweight, high-strength materials in cable design. For example, some manufacturers use carbon fibre, which is stronger and lighter than traditional materials like steel. This allows for a smaller diameter cable, which reduces weight and cost and makes the installation process more manageable.

                                      Sensors

                                      Some manufacturers are incorporating sensors into the cable design to monitor and detect any damage or changes in the cable's condition. These sensors use fibre-optic technology to detect temperature changes, strain, and other factors that could indicate potential issues. By detecting issues early, repair and maintenance can be performed promptly, reducing the risk of failure and associated downtime.

                                      Robotics

                                      Some companies are exploring robotic technology for cable installation and maintenance. These robots can be used to perform tasks like seabed preparation, cable laying, and repair without the need for human intervention. For instance, the Dutch company, VandeGrijp, has developed a robot called the Cable Laying Aid (CLA), which can be used to lay and bury cables up to 2 metres below the seabed.

                                      Related Resources

                                      Explore more information about the global offshore wind industry with the following related resources from 4C Offshore's team of experts

                                      Global Offshore Wind Farm Database
                                      Global Offshore Wind Farm Database
                                      Global Offshore Wind Speed Rankings
                                      Global Offshore Wind Speed Rankings
                                      Global Offshore Wind Farm Map
                                      Global Offshore Wind Farm Map